Term (Acronym) [units]: Definition
Matrix: A two-dimensional array, usually an array of rows and columns in a display.
Metallization: Applying a layer of metal to a substrate during display fabrication, typically in a specific pattern for interconnection of circuit elements. Metallization is often done in a vacuum by heating the metal to its boiling point in a vacuum chamber, then letting condensation deposit the metal on the substrate’s surface.
Microdisplay: Term used throughout the LCD industry for displays that are smaller than 1" diagonal. Microdisplays are used primarily in front & rear projectors, and in near-to-eye applications such as viewfinders and head-mounted displays (HMDs). Microdisplays are made using one of four technologies: LCD, LCoS, DLP and OLED.
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS): The integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology.
Micron [µm]: One micrometer; one millionth of a meter; one thousandth of a millimeter; 10-6 meters.
Mobility: The effective velocity at which electrons flow through a given material.
Module: A finished display panel, including all subassemblies and components that make it complete.
Module Assembly Process: The process of assembling the LCD cell, driver circuits, backlight, frame and other components into a finished display panel. This is the third and final major process group in the manufacturing of an LCD.
Moiré Pattern: An interference pattern created when two grids are overlaid at an angle, or when they have slightly different mesh sizes. Taking a picture of a CRT TV screen with a digital camera produces two moiré patterns, one due to the superimposition of the TV scan lines on the array of CCD pixels in the digital camera, and one due to the superimposition of the pattern of phosphor dots on the TV screen on the array of CCD pixels in the digital camera.
Monochrome: Capable of displaying only a single color. With regard to an image, monochrome usually means black-and-white.
MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor): A common type of transistor in which charge carriers, such as electrons, flow along channels. The width of the channel, which determines how well the device conducts, is controlled by an electrode called the gate, separated from the channel by a thin layer of oxide insulation. The insulation keeps current from flowing between the gate and channel. MOSFETs are useful for high-speed switching applications and also on integrated circuits in computers.
Motion Blur: The inability of current LCD technology to show rapid motion without blurring or jerkiness (judder). It is cause by a combination of multiple factors, including LCD response times and refresh rates, frame rate conversion issues and human eye physiology. The problem is expected to be solved by the end of 2007.
Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG): MPEG is a compression standard for moving image sequences. MPEG-1 was the first MPEG standard; it provided VCR image quality. MPEG-2 is the current architecture for Digital Video Disc (DVD), Digital Satellite System (DSS) and High-Definition Television (HDTV) compression. MPEG-4 is the next-generation standard.
Multidomain Vertical Alignment (MVA): A common wide-viewing-angle enhancement. Rather than using rubbing to form the alignment layer, it uses protrusions patterned onto the color filter substrate. MVA is a compromise between TN and IPS. It has better color reproduction than TN but poorer than IPS, good viewing angles but less than IPS, higher contrast than TN or S-IPS, and slower pixel response time than TN or IPS.
Mura: A Japanese word meaning "blemish" that has become widely used in the display industry to describe non-uniform areas on an LCD display. Muras range tremendously in size, shape and severity, which makes them very hard to categorize. Muras are generally considered to be defects in the LCD.
Term (Acronym) [units]: Definition
Nanometer [nm]: One billionth of a meter; one millionth of a millimeter; 10-9 meter.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA): A US trade organization that develops standards for the electrical manufacturing industry. NEMA ratings are sometimes applied to display housings in applications with demanding environmental conditions.
National Television System Committee (NTSC): NTSC is the analog television system used in the US, Canada, Japan, South Korea and many other countries. The significance of NTSC to the display industry is that the 1953 NTSC standard defined a color gamut that is still in use today. For example, standard monitor LCDs today can display about 72% of the NTSC gamut, while 32" TV LCDs with LED backlights can display about 105% of the NTSC gamut.
Native Resolution: The native resolution of an LCD is defined by the physical number of pixels in the display. For example, the native resolution of an XGA display is 1024x768 pixels. Scaling is used to display non-native resolutions (such as 800x600) on a native-resolution display; artifacts such as blocky or uneven images often result.
Nit: A measure of luminance equal to one candela per square meter. The term "nit", used mostly in the US, comes from the Latin word "nitere", meaning "to shine".
Number-Up: In the manufacturing process, flat-panel displays are usually laid out in multiples on a large substrate (like a checkerboard) and then cut up later into individual displays. The number of displays made from a single substrate is referred to as the "number-up". 6-up and 8-up are the most common multiples, although it’s possible to have several hundred-up when many small displays are being made from one large substrate, or only 1- or 2-up when large displays are being made from a small substrate.