The miracles of science™

Select Industry


DuPont™ Formacel® foam expansion agents

DuPont™ Formacel® 1100
» Glossary


A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z


Alternative Foam ExpansionAgent Alternative foam expansion agent (FEA)refers to FEAs that meet the EPA SNAP rule.
Anthropogenic Effects Anthropogenic effects are those processes, objects, or materials that are derived from human activities, as opposed to those occurring in natural environments without human influences. CO2 production from increased industrial activity (fossil fuel burning) and other human activities such as cement production and tropical deforestation has increased the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Because it is a greenhouse gas, elevated CO2 levels will increase global mean temperature.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2007 Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants. This method establishes means of referring to common refrigerant in place of chemical names, formulas, or trade names. It also establishes safety classifications based on toxicity and flammability data.
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
ASTM E582-07 Standard Test Method for Minimum Ignition Energy and Quenching Distance in Gaseous Mixtures. This test method covers the determination of minimum energy for ignition (initiation of deflagration) and associated flat-plate ignition quenching distances. The complete description is specific to alkane or alkene fuels admixed with air at normal ambient temperature and pressure. This method is applicable to mixtures of the specified fuels with air, varying from the most easily ignitable mixture to mixtures near to the limit-of-flammability compositions.
ASTM E681-04 Standard Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals(Vapors and Gases). This test method covers the determination of the lower and upper concentration limits of flammability of chemicals having sufficient vapor pressure to form flammable mixtures in air at atmospheric pressure at the test temperature. This test method may be used to determine these limits in the presence of inert dilution gases. No oxidant stronger than air should be used.
Auto-Ignition Temperature The auto-ignition temperature (AIT) is the temperature above which the material/air mixture may not require an external ignition source to combust.

Top

Burning Velocity The burning velocity is the velocity of a laminar flame under stated conditions of composition, temperature, and pressure.
Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are those chemicals that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and at least one chlorine atom connected by single bonds between the atoms.
Direct Contribution
to Climate Change
Direct contributions to climate change are associated with a product's direct emissions into the atmosphere, which can occur during manufacturing, as a result of leakage during use and/or service, or during recovery at end-of-service lifetime.  These numbers relate directly to the amount (in kg) of product escaping into the atmosphere multiplied by the product's GWP.
Global Warming Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.
Greenhouse Gas Effect It has long been known that certain human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, release by-product gases into the atmosphere. Some of these gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), are commonly called greenhouse gases (GHGs) because they trap heat at and near the earth's surface, causing the planet to get warmer. This effect is similar to that seen in a greenhouse, hence the name, "greenhouse effect."   The greenhouse effect occurs naturally and is essential to keeping the earth warm enough to sustain life.  However, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), increased pollution due to industrialization, population growth, and deforestation has changed the mixture and amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This variation has increased the amount of heat that is trapped, resulting in the phenomenon known as global warming - an increase in average earth surface and ocean temperatures that has occurred over the last century.
Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases are those gases that contribute to the greenhouse gas effect.
Global Warming Potential Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares the gas in question to that of the same mass of carbon dioxide (with a GWP of 1). A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval and the value of this must be stated whenever a GWP is quoted, otherwise the value is meaningless.
Heat of Combustion Heat per unit mass (or mole) released by the combustion of a substance that produces specified products (this is a calculated value).
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are those chemicals that are composed of fluorine, carbon, hydorgen, and at least one chlorine atom connected by single bonds between the atoms. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are ozone-depleting substances.
Hydrofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are those chemicals that are composed of fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen and connected by single bonds between the  atoms. Hydrofluorocarbons are non-ozone-depleting substances.
Hydrofluoro olefins  Hydrofluoro olefins (HFOs) are those chemicals that are composed of fluorine and carbon and have at least one double bond conntecting the atoms.  Hydrofluoro olefins are non-ozone-depleting substances.

Top

Indirect Contribution to Climate Change Indirect contributions to climate change are associated with a product's energy use.
Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty designed to stabilize greenhouse gases that cause climate change. The treaty was signed between March 16, 1998 and March 15, 1999.
LC50 LC50 is defined as the atmospheric concentration of substance that is lethal to 50% of the exposed population. Rodents are the usual test species and exposure times are generally 1 or 4 hours. This test is used for gases and vapors.
LD50 LD50 is defined as the dose of substance that is lethal to 50% of the exposed population. Rodents are the usual test species and the exposure route can be oral or dermal. This test is used for liquids and solids.
Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise (dP/dt)max. The maximum of change in pressure with time during the flame propagation of explosion in a sealed vessel. (Often used to calculate venting requirements in case of an explosion.)
Minimum Ignition Energy The minimum ignition energy is the minimum energy required to ignite a flammable gas/air mixture. Ignition sources with energies below this value will not ignite the flammable gas/air mixture.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987 and entered into force on January 1, 1989.
NOEL No observed effect level (NOEL) is the highest dose in a given toxicity test at which there were no effects observed.
OEL Observed effect level (OEL) is the level below which most of the working population could be exposed on a regular basis with a low risk to health.
Ozone Depleting Substances Ozone depleting substances (ODS) are those which intefere with the earth's ozone layer and destroys it.  The substances normally contain chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Ozone Depletion Potential The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of a chemical compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with trichlorofluoromethane (R-11) being fixed at an ODP of 1.0. Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), for example, has an ODP of 0.05.
Stoichiometric Composition Composition of flammable gas in air that has the stoichiometric ratio of gas to oxygen for the specified combustion products. (This is a measure of the most flammable composition.)
Total Contributions
to Climate Change
A product's total contribution to climate change is the sum of its direct and indirect contributions to climate change.  In some applications, energy efficiency over a product's lifetime can far overshadow contributions to climate change versus the contributions to climate change associated with leakage (GWP related). Comparing products, such as refrigerants, by their direct contributions to climate change (based on GWP) is not appropriate.
Upper Flame Limit or Upper Explosion Limit The upper flame limit (UFL) (or upper explosion limit , UEL) is the maximum concentration of substance in air that will exhibit flame propagation (generally measured in volume % in air).  The lower flame limit (LFL) can depend on the test apparatus and criteria used; the actual method used to determine each value should be identified. Well-established testing methodologies (e.g., ASTM E681 for flammable limits) should be employed where possible.

Top